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With the inception of the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, smart city initiatives have become a reality in many parts of the world. To begin with, IoT is not dependent on geographical locations or complexity ratios like population and per unit area of a city. In fact, with increased migration towards developed landscapes, there is an ever-increasing need for cities to effectively accommodate the surging population. In many of the major metropolitan cities in the world, such as Los Angeles, Barcelona, and Singapore, smart cities have already become a norm.
For instance, Los Angeles smart city initiative includes the utilization of IoT, data science, and sustainable resources to track and analyze the challenges faced in urban civilization. This includes detection of traffic-congested areas in the city, tracking pollution and water wastage, and most importantly, prevention against natural calamities like earthquakes and storms.

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